Complete Linux Commands Reference Cheat Sheet – A to Z Commands

Complete Linux Commands Reference Cheat Sheet – A to Z Commands – If you want become a pro hacker you need to remember all Linux command because Linux operating system all tools task command base or graphically, it has many hacking and penetration testing tools those work complete command line base. Best Important Linux Commands.

Complete Linux Commands Reference Cheat Sheet (A to Z) Commands

Many of these commands may not work on your Linux version. Important Linux Commands You Should Know. The alias command lets you give your own name to a command or sequence of commands.

See More: Termux Command For Android Hacking

Linux commands are run in the terminal provided by the Linux system. let’s start to learn useful Linux commands. Complete Linux Commands Reference Cheat Sheet

Complete Linux Commands With Description

Text commands often work regardless of which Linux-based operating system you use, and the results are often faster than what a graphical desktop interface can offer. so basically if you know Linux Commands You batter than others.

Also Read:  kali Linux Commands PDF Free Download

A to Z Useful Linux Commands With Description

A – Linux Commands

Commands Description
apt Advanced Package Tool / A package management system.
apt-getInstall / remove / update packages
aptitudeA utility to add / remove / upgrade packages
apmdUsed to handle events reported by APM BIOS drivers.
awkUsed to find and replace text in a file .
atrmDelete jobs queued by the at command.
aumixA audio mixer utility
autoupdateUpdate a configure.
asA portable GNU assembler.
atSchedule command execution at specified date & time.
atqList a user’s pending jobs
autoheader Create a template header for configure.
acpiShow information about the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.
accessCheck a user’s RWX permission for a file.
aclocalGNU autoconf too
aconnect ALSA sequencer connection manager.
acpid Informs user-space programs about ACPI events.
addr2line Used to convert addresses into file names and line numbers.
addresses Formats for internet mail addresses.
aplaySound recorder and player for CLI.
anacronrun commands periodically.
aliasCreate an alias for Linux commands
amidi Perform read/write operation for ALSA RawMIDI ports.
amixerAccess CLI-based mixer for ALSA soundcard driver.
apropos Shows the list of all man pages containing a specific keyword

B – Linux Commands

break Used to exit from a loop.
bzip2A block-sorting file compressor.
bison A GNU parser generator.
bind Used to attach a name to a socket.
bcAccess the GNU bc calculator utility.
bashGNU Bourne-Again Shell.
bgSend processes to the background.
badblocksSearch a disk partition for bad sectors.
bannerUsed to print characters as a poster.

C – Linux Commands

cutremove sections from each line of a file.
cpCopy contents of one file to another.
clearUsed to clear the terminal window.
commUsed to compare two sorted files line by line.
continue Resume the next iteration of a loop.
cpp GNU C language processor.
cron A daemon to execute scheduled commands.
csplitSplit a file into sections on the basis of context lines.
curlTransfer data from or to a server.
chrtAlter process attributed.
chshSwitch login shell.
cksum Perform a CRC checksum for files.
col Filter reverse from the input.
cpio Copy files from and to archives.
ctags Make a list of functions and macro names defined in a programming source file.
calShow calendar.
catConcatenate files and print them on the screen.
ccGNU C and C++ compiler.
cdChange directory.
cdda2wavRip a CD-ROM and make WAV file.
chmodChange access permission for a file
chpasswdUpdate password in a batch.
chrootRun a command with root privileges.
chkconfig Manage execution of runlevel services.
chgrp Used to change group ownership for file.
chvt Change foreground virtual terminal.

D – Linux Commands

df Show disk usage.
dirList the contents of a directory.
dc Desk calculator utility.
date Show system date and time.
dirnameDisplay pathname after removing the last slash and characters thereafter.
duShow disk usage summary for a file.
dump Backup utility for ext2/ext3 file systems.
dumpe2fsDump ext2/ext3/ext4 file systems.
dumpkeys Show information about the keyboard driver’s current translation tables.
dmesgExamine and control the kernel ring buffer.
disable Restrict access to a printer.
dirs Show the list of remembered directories.
declareUsed to declare variables and assign attributes.
ddrescue Used to recover data from a crashed partition.
debugfs File system debugger for ext2/ext3/ext4
depmod Generate modules.dep and map files.
dmesg Examine and control the kernel ring buffer.
dnssec-signkeySign a secure DNS keyset with key signatures specified in the list of key-identifiers.

E – Linux Commands

exit Exit from the terminal.
ejectEject removable media.
enableEnable/disable shell builtin commands.
esdcatUse EsounD to send audio data from a specified file.
esdctlEsounD control program.
esdplayEsounD system to play a file.
e2fsckCheck ext2/ext3/ext4 file systems.
ed GNU Ed – a line-oriented text editor.
egrepSearch and display text matching a pattern.
exportSet an environment variable.
expectAn extension to the Tcl script
exInteractive command
echodisplay text on the screen.
esdplayEsounD system to play a file.
e2label Show or change the label on an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem.
edquotaEdit filesystem quotas using a text editor
emacsEmacs text editor command line utility.
envShow/set/delete environment variables.

F – Linux Commands

file Determine file type for a file.
fingerdProvides a network interface for the finger program.
fuser Find and kill a process accessing a file.
ftp File transfer protocol user interface.
freeShow free and used system memory.
fsckCheck and repair a Linux file system.
formatFormat disks.
ftpdFTP server process.
functionDefine function macros.
factorDisplay prime factors of specified integer numbers.
falseExit with a status code indicating failure, Do nothing, unsuccessfully.
fc-list Show the list of available fonts.
fdformatDo a low-level format on a floppy disk.
fetchmail Fetch mail from mail servers and forward it to the local mail delivery system.
fg Used to send a job to the foreground.
find Do a file search in a directory hierarchy.
flex Generate programs that perform pattern-matching on text.
forExpand words and run commands for each one in the resultant list.
find Do a file search in a directory hierarchy.
fold Wrap input line to fit in a specified width.
fc-cacheMake font information cache after scanning the directories.

G – Linux Commands

groffer Displays groff files and man pages.
gprofShows call graph profile data.
getopts A utility to parse positional parameters.
gpgv Used to verify OpenPGP signatures.
groffer Displays groff files and man pages.
groupdelRemove a user group.
groupaddAdd a new user group.
groupmodModify a group definition.
groups Show the group.
grpckVerifies the integrity of group files.
gunzip A utility to compress/expand files.
gzip Same as gzip.
g++ Run the g++ compiler.
gcc A C and C++ compiler by GNU.
gdbA utility to debug programs and know about where it crashes.
getkeycodes Displays the kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table.
gpasswdAllows an administrator to change group passwords.
gpgEnables encryption and signing services as per the OpenPGP standard.
gpgsplit Used to split an OpenPGP message into packets.
gpm It enables cut and paste functionality and a mouse server for the Linux console.
grep Searches input files for a given pattern and displays the relevant lines.
groff Serves as the front-end of the groff document formatting system.

H – Linux Commands

help Display’s help for a built-in command.
host A utility to perform DNS lookups.
historyShows the command history.
helpDisplay’s help for a built-in command.
haltCommand used to half the machine.
head Shows first 10 lines from each specified file.
hexdumpShows specified file output in hexadecimal, octal, decimal, or ASCII format.
hwclockShow or configure the system’s hardware clock.
htop An interactive process viewer for the command line.
hostid Shows host’s numeric ID in hexadecimal format.
hostnameDisplay/set the hostname of the system.

I – Linux Commands

infoUsed to read the documentation in Info format.
install Used to copy files to specified locations and set attributions during the install process.
ip Display/manipulate routing, devices, policy, routing and tunnels.
ipcrm Used to remove System V interprocess communication (IPC) objects and associated data structures.
ipcs Show information on IPC facilities for which calling process has read access.
isoinfo A utility to perform directory like listings of iso9660 images.
isosize Show the length of an iso9660 filesystem contained in a specified file.
isovfy Verifies the integrity of an iso9660 image.
iconv Convert text file from one encoding to another.
ifExecute a command conditionally.
ifconfig Used to configure network interfaces.
ifup Starts a network interface.
imapd An IMAP (Interactive Mail Access Protocol) server daemon.
iostat Shows statistics for CPU, I/O devices, partitions, network filesystems.
isodump A utility that shows the content iso9660 images to verify the integrity of directory contents.
ispell A CLI-based spell-check utility.
import Capture an X server screen and saves it as an image.
ipcs Show information on IPC facilities for which calling process has read access.
iptables Administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT.

J- Linux Commands

joinjoin them using a command field and display on standard output.
jobs Show the list of active jobs and their status.

K – Linux Commands

killSend a kill processes.
kbd_modeSet a keyboard mode , shows the current keyboard mode.
killallKills a process.
kudzuUsed to detect new and enhanced hardware by comparing it with existing database.
kbdrate Reset keyboard repeat rate and delay time.

L – Linux Commands

ls Shows the list of files in the current directory.
lprm Cancel print jobs.
lprSubmit files for printing.
losetup Set up and control loop devices.
lsusb List USB devices.
lspci List all PCI devices.
ld The Unix linker
ldconfig Configure dynamic linker run-time bindings.
letPerform integer artithmetic on shell variables.
localCreate function variables.
locateFind files by their name.
login Create a new session on the system.
look Shows any lines in a file containing a given string in the beginning.
logout Performs the logout operation.
logger Make entries in the system log.
lpcLine printer control program
lpmove Move on or more printing jobs to a new destination.
lprint Used to print a file.
lastShows a list of recent logins on the system.
ldd Shows shared object dependencies.

M – Linux Commands

mvMove/rename files or directories.
mkdirUsed to create directories.
mtControl magnetic tape drive operation.
mtoolsUtilities to access MS-DOS disks.
mpg321Similar to mpg123.
mpg123Command-line mp3 player.
mostBrowse or page through a text file.
mzipChange protection mode and eject disk on Zip/ drive.
manShows manual pages for Linux commands.
makemapCreates database maps
makeUtility to maintain groups of programs.
mailUtility to compose, receive, send, forward, and reply to emails.
mailqShows to list all emails queued for delivery
mattribChange MS-DOS file attribute flags.
mcatDump raw disk image.
mcdUsed to change MS-DOS directory.
mcopyUsed to copy MS-DOS files from or to Unix.
mdirUsed to display an MS-DOS directory.
minfoDisplay parameters of an MS-DOS filesystem.
mrdRemove an MS-DOS sub directory.
mkfsBuild a Linux filesystem on a hard disk partition.
mklost+foundCreate a lost+found directory on a mounted ext2 filesystem.
mknod Create a FIFO, block special file.
mmv Mass move and rename files.
moreDisplay content of a file page-by-page.
mountMount a filesystem.
mountdNFS mount daemon.
mpg321Similar to mpg123.
mergefile merge

N – Linux Commands

nslookupUsed performs DNS queries
nsupdateDynamic DNS update utility.
nmList symbols from object files.
send A program to send desktop notifications.
niceRun a program with modified scheduling priority.
netstatShow network information.
nfsd Special filesystem for controlling Linux NFS server.
newgrpLog-in to a new group.
newaliasesRebuilds mail alias database.
namedInternet domain name server.

O – Linux Commands

openOpen a file.
odDump files in octal and other formats.
openvtStart a program on a new virtual terminal
opOperator access. (allows system administrators to grant users access to certain root operations that require superuser privileges)
objcopyCopy and translate object files.
objdumpDisplay information from object files.

P – Linux Commands

poweroffShuts down the machine.
perlPerl 5 language interpreter.
passwdChange user password.
pasteMerge lines of files.
patchApply a patchfile to an original file.
pathchkCheck if file names are valid or portable.
ping Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts.
pmap Report memory map of a process.
pppdPoint-to-point protocol daemon.
printfShow arguments
pvMonitor progress of data through a pipe.
ptx Produce a permuted index of file contents.
pr Convert text files for printing.
pinkyLightweight finger.
pgrepList process IDs matching the specified criteria among all the running processes.
pkill Send kill signal to processes based on name and other attributes.
pwckVerify integrity of password files.

Q – Linux Commands

quotactlMake changes to disk quotas.
quotaonDisable enforcement of filesystem quotas.
quotastatsShows the report of quota system statistics gathered from the kernel.
quotaShows disk usage.
quotacheckScan a file system for disk usage.

R – Linux Commands

readRead from a file descriptor.
reboot Restart the machine.
reset Reinitialize the terminal.
rm Removes specified files and directories.
rwhod Acts as a server for rwho and ruptime commands.
rwallSends messages to all users on the local network.
rmmodA program to remove modules from Linux kernel.
renameRename one or more files.
rarCreate and manage RAR file.
raidstartStart/stop RAID devices.
ram RAM disk device used to access the RAM disk in raw mode.
amsize Show usage information for the RAM disk.
rcpRemote copy command to copy files between remote computers.
rdev Set or query RAM disk size, image root device, or video mode.
rdate Set system date and time by fetching information from a remote machine.
readcd Read/write compact disks.
reniceChange priority of active processes.
rmailHandle remote mail received via uucp.
route Show/change IP routing table.
rsh Remote shell
rshd A daemon that acts as a server for rsh and rcp commands.
ruptime Shows uptime and login details of the machines on the local network.
rusersShows the list of the users logged-in to the host or on all machines on the local network.
rwallSends messages to all users on the local network.
rwhoReports who is logged-in to the hosts on the local network.
rwhod Acts as a server for rwho and ruptime commands.
readarray Read lines from a file into an array variable.
readelf Shows information about ELF files.

S – Linux Commands

su Change user ID or become superuser.
sudo Execute a command as superuser.
swapoffDisable devices for paging and swapping.
sysctl Configure kernel parameters at runtime.
syslogd Read and log system messages to the system console and log files.
sysklogd Linux system logging utilities. Provides syslogd and klogd functionalities.
swaponEnable devices for paging and swapping.
sync Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage.
suspendSuspend the execution of the current shell.
sumChecksum and count the block in a file.
ss Display socket statistics, similar to netstat.
statDisplay file or filesystem status.
snice Reset priority for processes.
sshAn SSH client for logging in to a remote machine.
split Split a file into pieces of fixed size.
ssh-agentHolds private keys used for public key authentication.
sshd Server for the ssh program.
ssh-keyscanGather ssh public keys.
ssh-keygenA Generates, manages, converts authentication keys for ssh.
sourceRun commands from a specified file.
sane-find-scannerFind SCSI and USB scanner and determine their device files.
scpCopy files between hosts on a network securely using SSH.
scanadf Retrieve multiple images from a scanner equipped .
scriptMake a typescript of everything displayed on the screen during a terminal session.
selectSynchronous I/O multiplexing.
sendmailmail router or an MTA. (Mail Transfer Agent)
sensorsShows the current readings of all sensor chips.
sedStream editor for filtering and transforming text
setUsed to manipulate shell variables and functions.
setkeycodes Load kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries.
setmetamode Define keyboard meta key handling.
setquotaSet disk quotas for users and groups.
sftpSecure File Transfer program.
shiftShift positional parameters.
shoptShell options.
sizeLists section size and the total size of a specified file.
skillSend a signal to processes.
sleep Suspend execution.

T – Linux Commands

tarGNU version of the tar archiving utility.
telnet Telnet protocol user interface. Used to interact with another host using telnet.
tftpUser interface to the internet TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol).
test Check file type and compare values.
tftpd TFTP server.
touch Change file access and modification times.
typeWrite a description for a command type.
ttyDisplay the filename of the terminal connected to standard input.
tset Initialize terminal.
topDisplays real-time view of processes running on the system.
touch Change file access and modification times.
tacConcatenate and print files in reverse order.
talkA two-way screen-oriented communication utility that allows two user to exchange messages simultaneously.
taskset Set/retrieve a process’s CPU affinity.
teeRead from standard input and write to standard output and files.
telinit Change SysV runlevel.
TRUEExit with a status code indicating success.
telnetd A server for the telnet protocol.
time Run programs and summarize system resource usage.
timeout Execute a command with a time limit.
tload Shows a graph of the current system load average to the specified tty.
trTranslate, squeeze, or delete characters from standard input and display on standard output.

U – Linux Commands

unameShow system information.
ul Underline text.
unameShow system information.
unrarExtract files from a RAR archive.
unset Remove variable or function names.
uncompressUncompress the files compressed.
uuidgenCreated a new UUID (Universally Unique Identifier) table.
usleep Suspend execution for microsecond intervals.
until Execute command until a given condition is true.
ulimit Get and set user limits for the calling process.
uniqReport or omit repeating lines.
umaskSet file mode creation mask.
uptime Tell how long the system has been running.
useraddCreate a new user or update default user information.
userdel Delete a user account and related files.
usermodModify a user account.
usersShow the list of active users on the machine.

V – Linux Commands

vi A text editor utility.
vimVi Improved, a text-based editor which is a successor to vi.
vdirSame as ls -l -b. Verbosely list directory contents.
vmstatShows information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, disks, and CPU activity.
vidmode Set the video mode for a kernel image.

W – Linux Commands

write Display a message on other user’s terminal.
who Shows who is logged on.
whereisLocate the binary, source, and man page files for a command.
watch Runs commands repeatedly until interrupted and shows their output and errors.
wShow who is logged-on and what they’re doing.
wait Waits for a specified process ID(s) to terminate and returns the termination status.
wget A non-interactive file download utility.
who Shows who is logged on.
whoamiDisplays the username tied to the current effective user ID.
whois Looks for an object in a WHOIS database
warnquota Send mail to the users who’ve exceeded their disk quota soft limit.
while Conditionally execute commands (while loop).

X – Linux Commands

xinetd Extended internet services daemon. Works similar to inetd.
xz Compress/ Decompress .xz and .lzma files.
xargs Runs a command using initial arguments and then reads remaining arguments from standard input.
xdg-openOpen a file or URL in an application preferred by the user.

Y – Linux Commands

ypxfr Transfers NIS server map from server to a local host.
yppasswdd Acts as a server for the yppasswd command. Receives and executes requests.
yes Repeatedly output a line with a specified string(s) until killed.
ypbind A daemon that helps client processes to connect to an NIS server.
yaccA GNU Project parser generator.
ypcatShows the NIS map (or database) for the specified Map Name parameter.
yppoll Shows the ID number or version of NIS map currently used on the NIS server.
ypinitSets up NIS maps on an NIS server.
ypmatch Shows values for specified keys from an NIS map.
ypserv A daemon activated at system startup. It looks for information in local NIS maps.
ypset Point a client (running ypbind) to a specifc server (running ypserv).

Z – Linux Commands

zip A file compression and packaging utility.
znewRecompress .z files to .gz. files.
zcatUsed to compress/uncompress files. Similar to gzip
zcmp Compare compressed files.
zforce Adds .gz extension to all gzipped files.
zicCreates time conversion information files using the specified input files.
zless Displays information of a compressed file (using less command) on the terminal one screen at a time.
zmoreDisplays output of a compressed file (using more command) on the terminal one page at a time.
zdiffCompare compressed files line by line.

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